methods of transportation
The means of transport and communication are the lifeblood of the economy and the prosperity of countries. Therefore, the countries of the first world are interested in this aspect and its development and development. Due to its importance in connecting parts of the state to each other and linking it to other countries through a network of modern transportation and roads; Such as the use of means of transport such as cars, planes, trains, trucks and buses; Where the presence of varied and perfected means of transport expresses the extent of civilization and the advancement of nations.
The industrial revolution in Europe in the middle of the 18th century showed the urgency of a means of transport which carried large quantities of goods and raw materials in Europe, and coal in particular, which was the basis of industry in the time, and because it was difficult to transport large quantities of these goods and raw materials overland. It was necessary to think of a suitable means of transport to perform these tasks, so trailers that run on rails were invented, and the development of this invention throughout history was as follows:
- In 1775 AD, the British James Watt took advantage of the power of steam and harnessed it in the manufacture of the first steam locomotive.
- In 1803 AD Sir Richard Trevithick (English: Richard Trevithick) the first successful steam locomotive on the rails; As this cart was able to pull five carts with a load of tons of iron at a speed of 8 km per hour.
- In 1814 George Stephenson designed a steam locomotive called Locomation, based on an idea by James Watt.
- The year 1830 marks the beginning of the stage of diffusion of the railways. The Manchester-Liverpool line was the first railway line to operate for a distance of 31 miles, and then the railway lines began to develop and spread around the world with the development and progress of science.
The longest railway in the world
The United States of America has the longest rail network in the world; With a length of more than 250,000 km, this network is divided into two tracks, one track for the operation of shipping lines which represents 80% of the total network, and a second track for passenger transport, with an extension of 35,000 km of the total network. The American network consists of 538 freight railroads spread over seven lines: first-class railroads, 510 national railroads and 21 regional railroads operated by private organizations.
The Union Pacific Railroad and BNSF Railway are among the largest freight rail networks in the world, and Amtrak’s national rail network has more than 30 rail lines that connect 46 US states and 500 different destinations.
Features of rail transport
Rail transport is the most important thing brought about by the industrial revolution. As it is considered the second most important means of transportation in the world; This is due to its great capacity to transport heavy weights, in addition to the following characteristics:
- speed: With the development and progress of science, scientists have been able to develop trains that run on railway tracks and increase their speed; The speed rates of modern trains varied between 200 and 400 km/h and they are capable of transporting both passengers and goods.
- energyThis type of transport is characterized by its great capacity to transport very heavy weights and at a low economic cost compared to other means of transport, and with the development and progress of science, scientists have been able to design and manufacture trains of high horsepower that allow them to tow and tow more trailers, thus increasing the capacity of trains to carry more weight, whether it is goods or passengers, this reduces transport costs.
- weather conditionsThe means of rail transport is one of the least affected by climatic conditions. This is because trains are subject to precise time and distance calculations on a continuous basis, and are monitored and directed to control and stopping stations, and the worst effect of weather conditions may cause the trip to be delayed. of the train which would cause a disturbance of the traffic prepared for it.
- Safety and SecurityThe security element is increased in this type of transport for several reasons, represented by the following:
- Regular maintenance of railway tracks and trailers.
- Presence of a precise control system, represented by surveillance cameras distributed along the railway tracks, which controls the movement and order of trains.
- The absence of intersections between the lines, which reduces the possibility of accidents.
- Train drivers undergo rigorous training.
- The nature of the materials from which the trailers are made has high safety characteristics.
- Use the insulation system and containers to protect the transported goods from breakage or damage.
- ComfortsThe provision of air conditioning, beds, restaurants and the absence of vibrations and noise in this type of transport have led to a high degree of comfort, in addition to this it is characterized by the availability of larger spaces , which increases the comfort of travel compared to other means of transport.
- Low transportation costRail transport is cheaper than other means of transport for the following reasons:
- Its large capacity to carry a large number of passengers and many tons of cargo without the need for a large number of workers and specialists to operate the train.
- lower fuel costs due to reduced fuel consumption; Due to the low slope of the terrain on which the railway tracks are laid, which in turn contributes to reducing the stress on the trailer and increasing its speed, thereby reducing fuel consumption and cost.
- The decrease in the cost of transport due to the increase in the speed of trains, and therefore the transport of more goods and passengers in less time.
- Regular maintenance of railways and trailers, which in turn reduces the incidence of accidents, and therefore reduces costs, contrary to what seems to some to increase the proportion of costs.
- ↑ Abdullah Ali (27/1/2012), “Means of transport and communication”, AlrightSeen on 04/08/2017, with an arrangement
- ^ a B Al-Dalfi Jabbar Abdul-Jubail Khafi (19/1/2016), “The mode of rail transport and its characteristics”, art.uobabylon.edu.iqSeen on 04/08/2017, with an arrangement.
- ^ a B “The 10 longest railway networks in the world”, www.railway-technology.comRetrieved 2017-08-04, edited
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